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The origins of Halloween

The origins of Halloween

Halloween has been around for more than a thousand years. Originally a religiousobservance, it became increasingly secular over the centuries until its religious trappings all but disappeared. Today Halloween is considered a holiday for dress-upand fun, especially for children.
Halloween’s origins can be traced back to the ancient Celtic festival known as Samhain, which was held on November 1 in contemporary calendars. It was believedthat on that day, the souls of the dead returned to their homes, so people dressed incostumes and lit bonfires to ward off spirits. In this way, popular Halloween tropessuch as witches, ghosts, and goblins became associated with the holiday.
In the 7th century CE, Pope Boniface IV created All Saints Day, originally celebratedon May 13. A century later, Pope Gregory III moved the holiday to November 1, likely as a Christian substitute for the pagan festival of Samhain. The day before the saintly celebration became known as All Hallows Eve, or Halloween.
Though the holiday began in Celtic regions of Ireland, the United Kingdom, andFrance, it quickly spread to other parts of the world. The first American colonists in New England were forbidden to celebrate it for religious reasons, though it enjoyed some popularity in the Southern colonies. By the 1800s, fall festivals marking theseasonal harvest incorporated Halloween elements, and Irish immigrants escaping the devastating Potato Famine brought with them many Halloween traditions that remain today.
The custom of trick-or- treating, in which children dress up in costume and solicit treats from neighbors, became popular in the United States in the early 20th century as Irish and Scottish communities revived the Old World custom of “guising,” in which a person would dress in costume and tell a joke, recite a poem, or performsome other trick in exchange for a piece of fruit or other treat. By 1950, trick-or-treating for candy had become one of Halloween’s most popular activities. Today,Halloween is one of the biggest holidays for candy sales in the United States,exceeding $2.5 billion annually.

万圣节

万圣节已经有一千多年的历史了。它最初是一个宗教仪式, 几个世纪以来它变得越来越世俗,直到它的宗教装饰几乎消失。今天万圣节被认为是装扮和娱乐的节日,尤其是对孩子们来说。
万圣节的起源可以追溯到古代凯尔特人被称为Samhain的节日,在现代日历上是在11月1日举行的。人们相信,在那一天,死者的灵魂会回到他们的家,所以人们穿着服装,点燃篝火来驱赶鬼魂。就这样,万圣节流行的巫婆、鬼魂和妖精等与节日关联起来了。
公元7 世纪,教皇Boniface 四世创立了万圣节,最初是在5月13日庆祝的。一个世纪后,教皇Pope Gregory三世把这个节日改到11月1日,可能是作为异教徒萨温节的替代。在这个节日的前一天被称为万圣节前夕或者万圣节。
尽管这个节日起源于爱尔兰、英国和法国的凯尔特地区,但它很快就传到了世界其他地方。新英格兰的第一批美国殖民者由于宗教原因被禁止庆祝它,尽管它在南部殖民地颇受欢迎。到了19世纪,标志着季节性丰收的秋季节日融入了万圣节的元素,爱尔兰移民们从毁灭性的马铃薯饥荒中逃离,带来了许多至今仍保留的万圣节传统。
“不给糖就捣蛋”的习俗,即孩子穿上服装并要求邻居款待,20世纪初在美国随着爱尔兰和苏格兰社区恢复了旧世界的“装扮风俗而流行起来。一个人会穿着盛装打扮,讲个笑话,背诵一首诗,或进行其他技巧,以换取一块水果或其他点心。到1950年,“不给糖就捣蛋*已经成为万圣节最受欢迎的活动之-一。如今,万圣节是美国糖果销售额最大的节日之一, 每年销售额超过25亿美元。

文章作者: 小长弓
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